Understanding Cannabidiol (CBD): Insights and Uncertainties

Understanding Cannabidiol (CBD): Insights and Uncertainties

Understanding Cannabidiol (CBD): Insights and Uncertainties

CBD in the Spotlight*: Recently, Cannabidiol, or CBD, has gained significant media attention. Often added to beverages like post-exercise smoothies or morning coffees, its popularity is on the rise. You might even come across CBD-infused clothing like sports bras. But, what is CBD, and why has it become so popular?

Distinguishing CBD from Marijuana and Hemp: CBD, a key active compound found in cannabis, is also a major element in medical marijuana. It originates either from the hemp plant, which is related to marijuana, or is synthesized in labs. Unlike other marijuana components, CBD doesn’t induce intoxication. The World Health Organization reports that CBD doesn’t show potential for abuse or dependence and isn’t associated with public health issues when used in its pure form.

Legality of CBD: In the U.S., CBD’s legal status has evolved. It's legal in varying degrees across all 50 states. Regulatory changes, such as the 2015 FDA decision easing research restrictions and the 2018 Farm Bill legalizing hemp, have influenced its legal status. The Farm Bill especially was pivotal, removing hemp-derived products, including CBD, from the Controlled Substances Act. While CBD from hemp is legal, if it’s derived from cannabis, it’s not, despite being the same molecule.

Health Benefits of CBD: Strong evidence supports CBD’s effectiveness in treating severe childhood epilepsy disorders like Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, which often don’t respond to traditional antiseizure medications. The FDA-approved drug Epidiolex, containing CBD, is a testament to this. Preliminary research and anecdotal evidence suggest CBD might also assist in managing anxiety, insomnia, chronic pain, and addiction. However, more human studies are required to confirm these benefits.

Is CBD Safe?: CBD use may lead to side effects like nausea, fatigue, and irritability. It can interact with other medications by affecting liver enzymes. High doses of CBD might impact liver-related blood tests, similar to some over-the-counter medications. As CBD is mainly sold as a supplement and not a medication, the FDA doesn’t regulate its safety and purity. Thus, product quality and ingredient accuracy can vary.

Methods of Using CBD: Available in various forms including oils, capsules, patches, vapes, and topicals, CBD’s mode of application can vary based on the intended use. For example, topical applications might be best for reducing inflammation and pain, while tinctures or sprays are used for direct bloodstream absorption.

Global Perspective and Regulations: Outside the U.S., drugs like Sativex, which contain CBD, are approved for certain medical conditions. In the U.S., Epidiolex is approved for specific types of epilepsy and tuberous sclerosis. 

Exploring Cannabidiol (CBD): Origin, Uses, and Legal Status

CBD and Its Source: Cannabidiol, commonly known as CBD, is a compound found in the Cannabis sativa plant, which is also referred to as cannabis or hemp. In the U.S., a specific form of CBD has been sanctioned for medical use, primarily for treating seizures.

Components of Cannabis Sativa: The Cannabis sativa plant is known to contain over 80 different chemicals known as cannabinoids. The most well-known among these is Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), famous for its psychoactive properties. CBD, however, is derived from hemp – a variant of the Cannabis sativa plant – which has only trace amounts of THC. The influence of CBD on the brain is distinct and differs significantly from the effects of THC.

Medical Applications of CBD: CBD has been prescribed for seizure disorders, such as epilepsy. It is also popularly used for treating a range of conditions like anxiety, pain, dystonia (a muscle disorder), Parkinson's disease, Crohn's disease, among others. However, it’s important to note that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of CBD in treating these conditions.

Legal Landscape of CBD in the U.S. : The legislation passed in 2018 legalized the sale of hemp and hemp-based products in the United States. However, this does not automatically make all hemp-derived CBD products legal. Given that CBD is an FDA-approved drug, its inclusion in food items or as a dietary supplement is not lawful. It can only be legally used in "cosmetic" products. Despite this regulation, the market still sees CBD products labeled as dietary supplements, and often, the concentration of CBD in these products does not match the levels claimed on their labels.

The Final Word on CBD: Despite some manufacturers making unfounded claims about CBD curing major diseases like cancer or COVID-19, research suggests CBD might be beneficial for managing conditions like anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Yet, due to the lack of regulated, high-quality research, effective dosages and full therapeutic potential are still unknown. If considering CBD use, consulting with a healthcare provider and choosing reputable sources is essential.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31866386/

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